DEVELOPMENTS IN TURKEY

 
Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge
The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Turkish: Yavuz Sultan Selim Köprüsü) is a bridge for rail and motor vehicle transit over the Bosphorus strait, to the north of two existing suspension bridges in Istanbul, Turkey. It was initially named the Third Bosphorus Bridge (with Bosphorus Bridge being the First Bosphorus Bridge and Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge the Second Bosphorus Bridge).
 
 
It is about 5 km (3.1 mi) north of the Bosphorus Bridge. The bridge is located near the Black Sea entrance of the Bosphorus strait, between Garipçe in Sarıyer on the European side and Poyrazköy in Beykoz on the Asian side.

The foundation stone laying ceremony was held on 29 May 2013. The bridge was opened to traffic on 26 August 2016. At 322 m (1,056 ft), the bridge is the tallest suspension bridge in the world It is, after the Millau Viaduct, the second-tallest bridge in the world of any type. The bridge is also one of the world's widest suspension bridges, at 58.5 metres (192 ft) wide.

Kanal Istanbul
Kanal İstanbul is the Turkish project name of the artificial sea-level waterway, which is being built by the Republic of Turkey on the European side of Turkey, connecting the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, and hence to the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.
Kanal İstanbul would bisect the current European side of Istanbul and thus form an island between the continents of Asia and Europe(the island would have a shoreline with the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, the new canal and the Bosphorus). The new waterway would bypass the current Bosphorus.

Kanal İstanbul aims to minimise shipping traffic in the Istanbul Strait. The project is intended for the 100th anniversary in 2023 of the foundation of the Turkish Republic.

 
 
Purpose:
 
 
The main purpose of the project is to reduce the marine traffic through the Bosphorus and minimize the risks and dangers associated particularly with tankers. About 56,000 vessels pass yearly through the Istanbul Strait, among them 10,000 tankers carrying 145 million tons of crude oil.

International pressure is growing to increase the marine traffic tonnage through the Turkish straits that brings risks for the security of marine navigation during the passage.

The canal will further help prevent the pollution caused by cargo vessels passing through or mooring in the Sea of Marmara before the southern entrance of the Bosphorus The waterway will have a length of 45–50 km (28–31 mi) with a depth of 25 m (82 ft). Its width will be 150 m (490 ft) on the surface and 120 m (390 ft) at the canal bed. These dimensions will allow the largest vessels and even submarines to pass.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Huge-Tunnels Projects in Istanbul
 
 
According to the project, 17 tunnels totaling 98 kilometers in length will be completed by 2019 and 11 tunnels totaling 47 kilometers will be constructed after 2019 for completion by 2023.

Some 22 tunnels will be located on the European side of the notoriously traffic-snarled city, while six of them will cover the Asian side. Construction of the Kasımpaşa-Sütlüce and Libadiye-Çamlıca tunnels, which are 5.78 kilometers long, have already reached an end.

The tunnels project aims to provide undisrupted transportation over long distances in the city.

Through a tunnel that begins from the Kağıthane district of Istanbul, for example, vehicles will be able to reach Bayrampaşa district and from there arrive in the Bağcılar district.

Another tunnel to be built between Dolmabahçe and Levazım, extending to Ayazağa and then to Baltalimanı and Çayıbaşı, will make the Beşiktaş-Sarıyer route more direct. A 52 kilometer-long tunnel that will extend from Kağıthane to Büyükçekmece, meanwhile, will connect six districts of Istanbul.

In the projects due to be launched after 2019, Davutpaşa will be linked to Samatya, Merter will be linked to Kazlıçeşme, and Kadıköy will be linked to the Kuşdili area.

According to the project, a six-tunnel-road passing through the Büyükçekmece, Esenyurt, Avcılar, Küçükçekmece, Bahçelievler, Bayrampaşa, Kağıthane and Sarıyer districts will be constructed on Istanbul’s European side and will be connected to the TEM highway and the D100 highway.
 
Istanbul Ascends to The Sky With Havaray Project
 
The Havaray air rail project is intended to ease Istanbul's heavy traffic. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report for the Sefaköy-Halkalı-Başakşehir Havaray line prepared by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality's (IBB) Department of Transportation has been completed. Nearly 15-kilometers long, the Havaray line will cost approximately TL 861.2 million ($290 million). Construction of the project will take 48 months and be in service in 2019.
 
 
The Havaray air rail project is intended to ease Istanbul's heavy traffic. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report for the Sefaköy-Halkalı-Başakşehir Havaray line prepared by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality's (IBB) Department of Transportation has been completed. Nearly 15-kilometers long, the Havaray line will cost approximately TL 861.2 million ($290 million). Construction of the project will take 48 months and be in service in 2019.

Integrated with the Soğütlüçeşme-Beylikdüzü metrobus line, Havaray starts in Sefaköy, follows Halkalı Street and Hürriye Boluverd to the north and later ends at Fatih Terim Stadium. With this line, the IBB aims to breathe new life into the Sefaköy-Halkalı surroundings and Halkalı Street bypassing E-5 traffic that reaches its peak in the morning and in the evening and is blocked through the Beylikdüzü-Bakırköy direction.

Some of the 17 stations in the project are Sefaköy, Armoni Park, Industrial Zone, Customs Road, Halkalı Center, TOKİ 1, TOKİ 2, Arena Park, Ziya Gökalp, Atatürk Auto Industry-1, Atatürk Auto Industry-2, Başak Residences, Onurkent, Oyak Kent and Fatih Terim Stadium. The IBB prefers 44-meter-long vehicles for Havaray, which can serve the headway potential in the region. Vehicles, at 28-meters to 48-meters long, have three to five wagons and carry 485 passengers at full capacity with 145 seated and 340 standing. Weighing about 78 tons, the vehicles can travel 105 kilometers per hour.
 
Seabus terminal in Heybeliada
 
The IBB will construct a new seabus terminal in Heybeliada. Part of the terminal that will be located on 1,146 square meters that belongs to the IBB, and the rest belongs to National Real Estate. The pier will be located in the northern part of City Lines Ferry Terminal. Car ferry terminal in Harem

Another terminal will be renewed in Harem. The new car ferry and seabus terminal will be on 15,682 square meters and have a parking lot, two administrative buildings, ticket offices and a cafeteria.

 
Avrasya Tunnel
 
 
EURASIA TUNNEL PROJECT (Istanbul Strait Road Tube Crossing Project)

Asia and Europe joins under the seabed for the first time via a highway tunnel The Eurasia Tunnel Project (Istanbul Strait Road Tube Crossing Project) connected the Asian and European sides via a highway tunnel going underneath the seabed. The Eurasia Tunnel will serve the Kazlıçeşme-Göztepe route where vehicle traffic is most intense in Istanbul and will cover a total of 14.6 kilometers.
 
 
While 5.4 kilometers of the project will comprise a two-story tunnel constructed underneath the seabed using special technology with approach tunnels constructed using other methods, road expansion and improvement works are being carried out on a total route of 9.2 kilometers on the European and Asian sides. The access roads between Sarayburnu-Kazlıçeşme and Harem-Göztepe were enlarged. Vehicle underpasses and pedestrian overpasses will be constructed.

Tunnel pass and road improvement-expansion works will cause holistic relief on vehicle traffic. Not only will the travel duration on the route with its highly intensive Istanbul traffic decline from 100 minutes to 15 minutes, but also the privilege of safe and comfortable travel will be experienced. It will also contribute to the reduction of environmental and noise pollution.

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications and General Directorate of Infrastructure Investments (AYGM) commissioned Avrasya Tüneli İşletme İnşaat ve Yatırım A.Ş. (ATAŞ) for the design, construction and operation of the Eurasian Tunnel Project for 24 years and 5 months. The Eurasia Tunnel will be transferred to the state on completion of the operating period.
 
Project Benefits
 
The Eurasia Tunnel Project to be constructed on the Kazlıçeşme-Göztepe route will substantially reduce the period of local travel in an area of intensive traffic. The travel time between the Asian and European sides will decline from 100 minutes to as little as 15 minutes. The advantages of fast and safe travel will be experienced as a result of the Eurasia Tunnel Project.

Traffic will flow better because of the expansion and re-arrangement of access roads at the entry and exit points of the tunnel. The Eurasia Tunnel will be among the most significant investments regarding solutions to traffic problems in Istanbul, a city prepared to host giant international organizations.
 
Istanbul New Airport
 
Istanbul New Airport (Turkish: İstanbul Yeni Havalimanı), or Third Airport (Turkish: Üçüncü Havalimanı), is an international airport under construction in Arnavutköy district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey.

The airport is planned as the largest airport in the world, with a 150 million passenger annual capacity, and was planned due to lack of capacity in the existing airports of Istanbul. It will be the third international airport to be built in Istanbul after Istanbul Atatürk Airport and Sabiha Gökçen International Airport. Atatürk Airport will be closed down once the new airport is operational. As of December 2016, 40% of the construction of the airport was completed.